Infant immune response to human rotavirus serotype G1 vaccine candidate reassortant WI79-9: different dose response patterns to virus surface proteins VP7 and VP4


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Abstract

Background.Rotavirus is the leading cause of morbidity from gastroenteritis in the developed world and the leading cause of mortality from viral gastroenteritis (estimated 600 000 deaths) worldwide. G1 is the most prevalent human serotype. Reassortant rotavirus between simian rotavirus RRV or bovine rotavirus WC3 and human strain rotaviruses have been extensively tested as candidate vaccines. Rotavirus (RV) reassortant strain WI79-9 consists of a human (strain WI79) G1 serotype VP7 surface protein on a bovine (strain WC3) background. It is a key component of a pentavalent (G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1) WC3 reassortant vaccine candidate, RotaTeq, now being tested in Phase III clinical trials.Methods.We studied 84 infants between the ages of 2 and 8 months who received 3 oral doses of WI79-9. Serum neutralizing antibody was measured to the human (WI79 serotype P1 G1) and bovine (WC3 serotype P7 G6) parent RV after each dose. A significant response was defined as a ≥3-fold rise in antibody titer between the predose and postdose sera.Results.In two separate cohorts of vaccinees given three doses of WI79-9 reassortant rotavirus, 68 to 75% of infants demonstrated a significant response to WC3 (VP4, P7) after Dose 1, fewer (24 to 39%) responses were detected after Dose 2 and rare (0 to 4%) additional responses occurred after Dose 3. The cumulative response rate to WC3 after three doses was 95% in both trials. In contrast 23 to 37% had a significant response to WI79 (VP7, G1) after Dose 1, and 57 to 61% had a significant response after Dose 2. Additional significant responses after Dose 3 led to a cumulative response of 70 to 84%.Conclusion.Two doses of G1 reassortant WI79 were necessary to induce significant antibody responses to human G1 (VP7) antigen in >50% of infants. Three doses were required to achieve significant antibody responses to VP7 in >70% of infants.

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