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Infantile gastroenteritis caused by human rotaviruses is a prevalent disease throughout the world, causing dehydration and hospitalization in all countries. In developing countries, it is associated with a high mortality. A licensed vaccine against rotavirus was withdrawn because of a causal association with intussusception. A new vaccine has been developed and is a candidate for licensure.To recount the early development and recent demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the new vaccine. A bovine rotavirus attenuated for humans was isolated and reassorted with human rotaviruses of serotypes G1-4 and P1 to create a pentavalent vaccine. Multiple placebo-controlled clinical trials, including one involving approximately 70,000 infants, were conducted in multiple developed countries.The pentavalent vaccine was well tolerated by infants less than 8 months of age, and the incidence of intussusception was similar among vaccine and placebo recipients. More than 90% of infants had a significant rise in serum antirotavirus IgA titer after 3 doses. Efficacy of 95% against severe disease causing hospitalization or emergency care was demonstrated, and pentavalent vaccine prevented 74% of all rotavirus disease.If widely used, pentavalent vaccine would control rotavirus disease in the United States and other developed countries and could also have a major effect in developing countries.