Human Papillomavirus DNA Detected in Breast Milk

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing of 223 breast milk samples 3 days postpartum was performed with polymerase chain reaction, hybridization, and sequencing. HPV-16-DNA was detected in 4.0% of the samples. HPV carriage in the breast milk was not correlated with mother's oral or cervical HPV-status or the demographic data. Oral HPV-infection of the spouse at month 6 and 12 postpartum was statistically significantly associated with HPV carriage in the breast milk.

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