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We report a neonatal infection with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurring through maternal transmission and presenting as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome 12 hours after birth. Pediatricians and obstetricians should be aware of the possibility of this infectious disease when examining newborns with fever. These observations suggest that antenatal maternal screening for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis should be considered.