Paradoxical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Meningitis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an HIV-infected Child

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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurs in a subset of HIV-infected individuals as the immune system recovers secondary to antiretroviral therapy. An exaggerated and uncontrolled inflammatory response to antigens of viable or nonviable organisms is characteristic, with clinical deterioration despite improvement in laboratory indicators. We describe a fatal case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-infected child and review the literature.

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