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AI266-922 was an open-label, dose-ranging study that assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of efavirenz (EFV) in children (3 months to 6 years).Antiretroviral-naïve and antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected children received once-daily EFV as oral solution or capsule sprinkle plus didanosine and emtricitabine (FTC). Pharmacokinetic analyses were undertaken at week 2 and repeated at weeks 10 and 18 after an EFV dose change or switch from oral solution to capsule sprinkle.Thirty-seven subjects were treated. EFV area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 1 dosing interval from time 0 to 24 hours postdose values were generally suboptimal (<110 μM × h) in subjects younger than 3 years treated with oral solution; these subjects switched to capsule sprinkle. Twenty of 21 subjects younger than 3 years treated with capsule sprinkle achieved an EFV area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 1 dosing interval from time 0 to 24 hours postdose value >110 μM × h, although higher initial doses were administered in this age group. Interpatient variability in EFV exposure was high. By week 48, 77.8% and 63.0% of subjects achieved HIV-RNA <400 and <50 copies/mL, respectively. Median changes in log10 HIV-RNA and CD4+ percentage from baseline were −3.18 copies/mL and +6%, respectively. Two (5.4%) patients discontinued because of adverse events (AEs). Serious AEs occurred in 20 (54.1%) subjects. Common AEs were diarrhea (49%), nasopharyngitis (35%) and pneumonia (30%). Overall, 43% of subjects with suboptimal EFV exposure at week 2 developed resistance.Once-daily EFV, given as capsule sprinkle, achieved target exposures in this study although doses were 2–3 times higher than Food and Drug Administration–approved doses for children younger than 3 years. These data are useful for dose selection modeling and simulation; however, Food and Drug Administration–approved doses should be used clinically. EFV + didanosine + FTC was efficacious with no new pediatric safety findings reported.