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Pneumococcal carriage is a precursor of invasive pneumococcal disease. Mozambique introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in April 2013, using a 3-dose schedule without a booster. We evaluated PCV10 impact on pneumococcal carriage and colonization density by HIV status.We conducted 2 cross-sectional surveys (pre and post PCV10 introduction) among children 6 weeks to 59 months old. Participants included HIV-infected children presenting for routine care at outpatient clinics and a random sample of HIV-uninfected children from the community. We collected demographic data, vaccination history and nasopharyngeal swabs. Swabs were cultured and isolates serotyped by Quellung. We selected serotypes 11A, 19A and 19F for bacterial density analyses. We compared vaccine-type (VT) carriage prevalence from the pre-PCV10 with the post-PCV10 period by HIV status.Prevalence of VT carriage declined from 35.9% (110/306) pre already defined in the background. It should be pre-PCV (PCV) to 20.7% (36/174 fully vaccinated) post PCV (P < 0.001) in HIV-uninfected and from 34.8% (144/414) to 19.7% (27/137 fully vaccinated) (P = 0.002) in HIV-infected children. Colonization prevalence for the 3 serotypes (3, 6A, 19A) included in the 13-valent PCV but not in PCV10 increased from 12.4% (38/306) to 20.7% (36/174 fully vaccinated) (P = 0.009) among HIV- uninfected children, mainly driven by 19A; no significant increase was observed in HIV-infected children. VT carriage among unvaccinated children decreased by 30% (P = 0.005) in HIV-infected children, with no significant declines observed in HIV-uninfected children.Declines in VT carriage were observed in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children after PCV10 introduction with an early signal of herd effect especially in HIV-infected children. Ongoing monitoring of increases in 19A carriage and disease is necessary.