Emergence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lymphadenitis in Children After the Discontinuation of Mandatory Bacillus Calmette and GuÉrin Immunization in France

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Eighty-five children were diagnosed with culture-confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis within the MYCOMED surveillance network from 2004 to 2013. The mean incidence sharply increased from 0.57 to 3.7 per 100,000 children per year, after the discontinuation of mandatory bacillus Calmette and Guérin immunization in 2007. Cases were documented as Mycobacterium avium (62.3%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (15.3%) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (12.9%). Outcome was favorable in all, with or without surgery or antimycobacterial treatment.

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