Linezolid-containing Treatment Regimens for Tuberculosis in Children


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Abstract

Background:In recent years, there is an increasing interest in the use of linezolid for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Methods:Patients less than 18 years of age who received linezolid within the Spanish Pediatric TB Network from 2001 to 2016 were retrospectively included. Treatment characteristics, adverse events (AEs) and outcomes were analyzed.Results:Fifteen children were included (53% male) with a median age of 3.6 years [interquartile range (IQR): 1.6–6.2]. Median follow-up was 54 months (IQR: 38–76). The reasons for linezolid use were drug-resistant TB in 8 (53%) patients, drug-induced liver injury in 5 (33%) patients and chronic liver disease in 2 (13%) patients. Four children (26%) were on immunosuppressive therapy when TB was diagnosed. Five children (33%) were diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB. The median duration of linezolid treatment was 13 months (IQR: 7.5–17). Nine patients had 13 linezolid-related AEs. Hematologic toxicity was observed in 8 patients (53%) and gastrointestinal intolerance in 3 patients (20%). In 2 patients, linezolid dose was reduced, and in 2 patients, linezolid was discontinued because of AEs. A 2-year-old girl went back to her country of birth and was lost to follow-up. No relapses were observed among the other 14 patients (93%).Conclusions:Linezolid may be considered when treating children with drug-resistant TB but also in the cases of patients with chronic liver disease or drug-induced liver injury. However, AEs should be closely monitored. Further studies are needed to determine the optimum dosage and the optimal duration of linezolid treatment in children.

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