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To create Parent and Adolescent Medication Barriers Scales (PMBS and AMBS) for assessing perceived barriers to medication adherence in adolescent transplant recipients.These scales were developed and initially validated with 78 families. Participants responded to questions concerning perceived barriers to medication adherence. To assess validity, data on contextual factors (e.g., family functioning) and adherence measures were collected.A principal components factor analysis resulted in the following subscales for the PMBS and AMBS: (a) Disease Frustration/Adolescent Issues, (b) Regimen Adaptation/Cognitive Issues, (c) Ingestion Issues, and (d) Parent Reminder (PMBS only). Significant associations were found between barrier scale scores, contextual factors, and adherence.The PMBS and AMBS are brief and psychometrically promising scales for assessing perceived barriers to adherence in adolescent transplant recipients.