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Objective Aggregated N-of-1 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) combined with multilevel modeling represent a methodological advancement that may help bridge science and practice in pediatric psychology. The purpose of this article is to offer a primer for pediatric psychologists interested in conducting aggregated N-of-1 RCTs. Methods An overview of N-of-1 RCT methodology is provided and 2 simulated data sets are analyzed to demonstrate the clinical and research potential of the methodology. Results The simulated data example demonstrates the utility of aggregated N-of-1 RCTs for understanding the clinical impact of an intervention for a given individual and the modeling of covariates to explain why an intervention worked for one patient and not another. Conclusions Aggregated N-of-1 RCTs hold potential for improving the science and practice of pediatric psychology.