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The pathogenic role of TT virus (TTV) is not clear in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of TTV positivity in serum and saliva samples and the possible role of TTV in children with chronic hepatitis B.Sera and saliva from 29 healthy children and 25 children with chronic hepatitis B were tested for TTV-DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Fifty-two percent (13/25) of the serum samples and 32% (8/25) of the saliva samples were positive for TTV-DNA in children with chronic hepatitis B. In healthy non-transfused children, TTV-DNA was detected in 58% (17/29) of the serum samples and 41% (12/29) of the saliva samples. Six (46%) of 13 children with chronic hepatitis and 10 (59%) of 17 healthy children had TTV-DNA positivity both in serum and saliva samples. Two serum samples were negative for TTV-DNA while the saliva samples were positive for TTV-DNA in chronic hepatitis B and control groups. Mean age, sex, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA values were similar in TTV-positive and -negative children with chronic hepatitis B. However, total histologic activity index (HAI), periportal necrosis and portal inflammation scores were significantly higher in children with HBV-DNA and TTV-DNA viremia (P = 0.013, P = 0.008, P = 0.015, respectively).Because total HAI, periportal necrosis and portal inflammation scores were higher in children with TTV coinfection, TTV infection may contribute to the progression of liver damage in children with chronic hepatitis B.