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Recently a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been reported in adult patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP). Furthermore, after H. pylori eradication therapy in such patients, their platelet counts have been observed to increase, suggesting that H. pylori may be a causative agent of adult cITP. However, there have been only a few reports of children with cITP. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the association between H. pylori infection and cITP in Japanese children.Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA) were measured and the prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined in 10 children with cITP.Helicobacter pylori infection was found in only two of the subjects. In a boy, the urea breath test (UBT) was also positive and the patient received eradication therapy using amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole for 1 week. The therapy was successful and the patient's platelet count increased. The response was maintained throughout more than 1 year of follow up.The prevalence of H. pylori infection in children with cITP is not high. However, the platelet count increased after eradication therapy in a boy with cITP. It is suggested that the eradication of H. pylori infection would be valuable in children, as well as in adults, with cITP.