Effects of antithrombin III treatment in vascular injury model of mice

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Background:Balloon angioplasty has recently been adopted as an acceptable form of treatment for stenotic vessel lesions of congenital heart diseases. However, precise mechanisms of restenosis and thrombosis, which are the most common complications after these procedures, are unknown.Methods:We examined the effects of antithrombin III (ATIII) on inflammation, thrombus formation, and remodeling of vascular wall after guidewire-induced injury in the femoral artery of mice. ATIII or saline was administered as a bolus intravenous infusion before injury.Results:Seventy-two hours after injury, approximately half of the saline-treated vessels showed macroscopic thrombus formation. In contrast, no thrombi were seen in the arteries pretreated with ATIII. Significantly higher levels of inflammation were induced in the injured vessels than in the sham-operated controls, as determined by CD11b-positive cell density in the adventitial area. ATIII treatment resulted in marked reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. Twenty-eight days after injury, similar levels of neointimal proliferation were found in the injured arteries in both groups.Conclusions:Our results suggested that a high dose of ATIII may influence the sequelae of arterial injury by reducing mural thrombus formation and limiting the inflammatory reaction of the vessel wall without altering the process of vascular remodeling.

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