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Listeria monocytogenes infection is not commonly reported in China. Increasing the awareness of neonatal listeriosis is necessary.Six cases of neonatal listeriosis were diagnosed in the neonatal intensive care unit at Beijing Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital in 2008. We reviewed the clinical features, laboratory findings, timing of treatment, medications used, and the history of the mothers during pregnancy.All six cases were preterm infants. Blood cultures were positive for L. monocytogenes. All of the mothers developed fever in the third trimester of pregnancy, and three of them ended their pregnancy the day the fever appeared. The severity of the clinical symptoms varied in each infant, and all cases were treated with antibiotics immediately after birth. All six cases were discharged from hospital in good health.Neonatal Listeria infection is generally a severe disease. Pregnant women must guard against fever and other manifestations, such as Listeria infection. Clinicians encountering such cases should be attentive to the patient's condition and should provide appropriate antibiotic treatment. Early detection and effective targeted treatment of listeriosis helps to improve the patient's survival and prognosis.