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The aim of this study was to describe and compare neurodevelopmental outcomes with birthweight (BW) groups at 250–g intervals of very–low–birthweight (VLBW) infants at 3 years of age in a multicenter cohort in Japan.A total of 3104 VLBW infants born in 2003 and 2004 registered in a NICU–network database were followed in the study. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as any of the following impairments: cerebral palsy, unilateral or bilateral blindness, severe hearing impairment, or developmental delay; a developmental quotient (DQ) <70 measured using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development test or judged by physicians in infants without the test.A total of 257 infants died and follow–up data were obtained from 1826 infants. Of the 1826 infants, 155 (8.5%) had cerebral palsy, 25 (1.4%) had visual impairment, and 12 (0.7%) had hearing impairment. Of the 1197 infants in whom DQ was measured, 184 (15.4%) had DQ < 70. The proportion of NDI in the evaluated infants was 19.2% (n= 350), ranging from 11.9% (BW 1251–1500 g) to 42.0% (BW ≤ 500 g). Odds ratios (95%CI) of NDI or death against the group BW 1251–1500 g were 20.62 (13.29–31.97) in BW ≤ 500 g, 7.25 (5.45–9.64) in BW 501–750 g, 2.85 (2.12–3.82) in BW 751–1000 g and 1.18 (0.85–1.64) in BW 1001–1250 g.The increasing proportion of NDI or death, an indicator of adverse outcome, was associated with decrement in the BW of the groups. Although we have to consider a bias due to loss of follow–up data, the incidence of NDI was similar to previous overseas cohort studies despite the higher survival proportion in our study.