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Type and volume of infant feeding determines infant growth, hematological parameters, and serum lipids.Study subjects consisted of 103 infants who were born vaginally at term, with birthweight >2200 g. Milk feeding amount, type, and anthropometry were measured at 1 and 6 months. Hematological tests and serum lipid profile were assessed at 1 and 6 months. Thirty–four infants were breast–fed and 36 were formula–fed at 6 months.Breast–fed infants demonstrated similar growth patterns compared with partially breast–fed or formula–fed infants, despite the lower milk intake. Infants with higher breast milk intake at 6 months, however, tended to have lower hemoglobin levels. In contrast, higher formula intake at 6 months was related to lower serum total cholesterol.Japanese breast–fed infants were more likely to be anemic at 6 months, while formula–fed infants were likely to have low serum lipid levels. Iron–fortified infant foods may be useful to prevent anemia in breast–fed infants. Fat quality of infant formulas should be improved to enhance lipid status of formula–fed infants.