Risk factors for poor outcome in congenital cytomegalovirus infection and neonatal herpes on the basis of a nationwide survey in Japan

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Background:Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and neonatal herpes are major mother-to-child infections, and analyses of the important clinical issues, including risk factors for prognosis, are essential.Methods:A secondary survey of congenital CMV infection and neonatal herpes was performed using questionnaires for cases reported in the primary survey between 2006 and 2008.Results:Univariate analysis of 71 cases of congenital CMV infection showed that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or other specific findings on fetal ultrasonography (US), microcephaly, intracranial calcification, disseminated intravascular coagulation, abnormal findings on computed tomography, and the use of i.v. gammaglobulin were all significantly correlated with poor outcome (death or severe sequelae). Multivariate analysis showed that only IUGR was significantly associated with poor outcome. Hearing impairment is one of the major abnormalities associated with congenital CMV infection. Automatic auditory brainstem response (automatic ABR) appeared to be useful for detection of hearing impairment in comparison with conventional ABR. Moreover, univariate analysis showed that specific fetal US or abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings were correlated with sensorineural hearing loss. In 24 cases of neonatal herpes, fever and seizure were correlated with poor outcome on univariate analysis. All patients received acyclovir treatment, although substantial numbers of patients in severe clinical categories (disseminated or central nervous system diseases) received a low dose of acyclovir (<60 mg/kg per day).Conclusions:This secondary survey has identified the risk factors associated with outcome and important issues in diagnosis and treatment of two mother-to-child infections: congenital CMV and neonatal herpes, in Japan.

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