Clinical features of hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in children

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Background:Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is the main phenotype of POTS. The aim of this study was to present our single-center experience of hyperadrenergic POTS in children and adolescents.Methods:Thirty-seven patients who met the diagnostic criteria for POTS were enrolled in our study. Their orthostatic serum norepinephrine levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a retrospective analysis, based on clinical and serum norepinephrine criteria, we analyzed the clinical features of POTS cases between the POTS-alone group and the hyperadrenergic POTS group.Results:Nineteen patients (51.35%) met the diagnostic criteria for hyperadrenergic POTS and 18 patients were assigned to the POTS-alone group. Compared with the POTS-alone patients, dizziness, headache and tremulousness were more frequent in patients with hyperadrenergic POTS (P < 0.05). During the tilt table test, children with hyperadrenergic POTS had a greater increment of systolic blood pressure and heart rate than POTS-alone patients.Conclusion:Patients with hyperadrenergic POTS should be identified and differentiated from those with neuropathic POTS. Hyperadrenergic POTS in children and adolescents should be considered when POTS patients suffer from frequent dizziness, headache, and tremulousness. In head-up tilt testing, children and adolescents with hemodynamic characteristics of hyperadrenergic POTS had greater increments of systolic blood pressure and heart rate.

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