Early diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocutaneous melanosis (60 month follow-up)

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Abstract

Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare, sporadic, congenital neuroectodermal dysplasia. Large congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) can evolve in a certain percentage of patients to NCM. Meningeal deposits are benign, but can be prone to malignant transformation in some cases. We describe the case of an infant with asymptomatic NCM, and typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The diagnosis was established shortly after delivery, and the patient was followed for 60 months. At that time, the girl did not have any neurologic symptoms; she reached normal developmental milestones and did not show mental retardation and did not develop malignant melanoma; further follow-up will be needed, although there are no reliable guidelines as to the time range of follow up of asymptomatic NCM in the literature. We report the typical MRI signal abnormalities of the brain, and present a review of the literature regarding this rare and mysterious congenital disorder.

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