Inadequate sociomedical evaluation of possible abusive head trauma in Yokohama

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There have been no previous studies on the adequacy of combined evaluation of possible abusive head trauma cases by frontline medical personnel, hospital-based child protection teams, and child protective services in local districts of Japan.


We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitalized patients under 24 months old with a diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from January 2011 to December 2013. Eleven large-scale general hospitals in Yokohama, Japan were surveyed, which provide centralized inpatient care to moderately–severely ill children.


A total of 51 ICH patients were listed from eight hospitals. Median patient age was 7 months, and 84% were younger than 12 months. The most common diagnosis on computed tomography was subdural hematoma (n = 26; 51%). Of a total of 51 cases, 31 (61%) occurred inside the home; the injury scene was unknown in six cases (12%). We reviewed these 37 cases from the viewpoint of evaluation with concern for suspected child abuse. Three out of 37 patients (8%) were not examined for inflicted skin lesions, and skeletal surveys and funduscopy were not conducted in 14 (38%) and 15 (41%), respectively. Thirteen out of 37 cases (35%) were not reported to hospital-based child protection teams and 22 (59%) were not reported to regional child protective services.


The sociomedical evaluation of possible child abuse appears to be systematically inadequate in Yokohama.

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