To evaluate whether nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) would decrease the requirement for endotracheal ventilation compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure(NCPAP) for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and compare the related complications between these two noninvasive variations of respiratory supportMethods:
A search of major electronic databases, including Medline (1980–2013) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, for randomized controlled trials that compared NIPPV versus NCPAP for preterm infants with RDS was performed.Main Results:
Six randomized controlled trials met selection criteria (n = 1,527). The meta-analyses demonstrated significant decrease in the need for invasive ventilation in the NIPPV group (RR:0.53; 95% CI, 0.33–0.85). In the subgroup of infants who received surfactant also demonstrated a significant rate of failure of nasal support in the NIPPV group (RR:0.57; 95% CI 0.42–0.78). However, the subgroup of infants whose gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks or birth weight (BW) < 1,500 g showed no difference between the two groups (RR:0.59; 95% CI 0.27–1.26); and the subgroup of infants whose GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1,500 g also showed no difference between the two groups (RR:0.63; 95% CI 0.29–1.39). No differences in other outcome variables were observed between the two groups.Conclusions:
Among preterm infants with RDS, there was a significant decrease in the need for invasive ventilation in the NIPPV group as compared with NCPAP group, especially for the infants who received surfactant. However, NIPPV could not decrease the need for invasive ventilation both in the subgroup of infants whose GA ≤ 30 weeks or BW < 1,500 g and the subgroup of infants with BW of >30 weeks or BW > 1,500 g. It is limited to analysis the primary outcome generally. Larger trials of this intervention are needed to assess the difference in this primary outcome and the related complications between both forms of noninvasive respiratory support. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:402–409. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.