An Effective Combination of Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing in Diagnostics of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a multigenic autosomal recessive condition affecting respiratory tract and other organs where ciliary motility is required. The extent of its genetic heterogeneity is remarkable. The aim of the study was to develop a cost-effective pipeline for genetic diagnostics using a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS).

Materials and Methods:

Data and samples of 33 families with 38 affected subjects with PCD diagnosed in childhood were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic. A panel of 18 PCD causative or candidate genes was implemented into an Illumina TruSeq Custom Amplicon NGS assay, and three ancestral mutations in SPAG1 were screened by conventional Sanger sequencing, which was also used for the confirmation of the NGS results and for the analysis of familial segregation.


The causative gene was DNAH5 in 11/33 (33%) probands, SPAG1 in 8/33 (24%), and DNAI1, CCDC40, LRRC6 in one family each. If the high proportion of subjects with bi-allelic ancestral mutations in SPAG1 is corroborated in other Caucasian populations, a simple Sanger sequencing test for these three mutations may serve as an effective pre-screening step, being followed by an NGS panel for other, much larger, PCD genes.


We present a combination of Sanger sequencing with an NGS panel for known and candidate PCD genes, implemented in a moderate-size national collection of patients. This strategy has proven to be cost-effective, rapid and reliable, and was able to detect the causative gene in two thirds of our PCD patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:498–509. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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