Intellectual Impairment in Children of Women Who Smoke Cigarettes During Pregnancy.

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Prospective follow-up of participants in a randomized trial of pregnancy and infancy nurse home visitation.


Semirural community in Upstate New York.


400 families in which the mothers registered before the 30th week of pregnancy and had no previous live births. Eighty-five percent of the mothers were either teenagers (<19 years at registration), unmarried, or poor. Analysis limited to whites who comprised 89% of the sample.


The results of this study add to the increasingly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy poses a unique risk for neurodevelopmental impairment among children and provide an additional reason for pregnant women not to smoke cigarettes. Pediatrics 1994;93:221-227; cigarette smoking, pregnancy, intelligence, children.

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