A Taste of Periodic Fever Syndromes

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Periodic fevers are acquired or inherited disorders of innate immunity, which were first described in the 1940s. The patients are typically young at onset and have regularly recurring fevers for a few days to a few weeks with systemic inflammatory symptoms that are interrupted by symptom-free periods. There is a variety of clinical manifestations including gastrointestinal complaints, myalgias, arthralgias, and rash. A differential diagnosis in these patients may include recurrent infections, other inflammatory disorders, and neoplastic disease. This clinical review focuses on a sample of autoinflammatory disorders including familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1–associated periodic syndrome, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome, the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, and periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis syndrome. We review the basics, pertinent clinical and laboratory features, and management of each entity.

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