A Taste of Periodic Fever Syndromes

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Abstract

Periodic fevers are acquired or inherited disorders of innate immunity, which were first described in the 1940s. The patients are typically young at onset and have regularly recurring fevers for a few days to a few weeks with systemic inflammatory symptoms that are interrupted by symptom-free periods. There is a variety of clinical manifestations including gastrointestinal complaints, myalgias, arthralgias, and rash. A differential diagnosis in these patients may include recurrent infections, other inflammatory disorders, and neoplastic disease. This clinical review focuses on a sample of autoinflammatory disorders including familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1–associated periodic syndrome, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome, the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, and periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis syndrome. We review the basics, pertinent clinical and laboratory features, and management of each entity.

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