Zika Virus Disease: Case Report and Review of Literature

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Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks. In light of the clusters of microcephaly and neurologic manifestations in areas of ZIKV transmission, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV and associated complications an international public health emergency. The clinical presentations of ZIKV disease resemble many common infections, making the diagnosis of ZIKV disease a clinical challenge. Patients with ZIKV infection may have other coinfections that can distract clinicians from suspecting ZIKV disease in their patients. Complications from ZIKV, although uncommon, may be severe. Therefore, it is important for health care providers to remain alert and up to date in the efforts to control this emerging global health crisis. It is critical for physicians and other providers to know the growing list of countries and territories on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention list of nations with endemic ZIKV disease and to work closely with local health departments to prevent spread. In this article, we present a case of ZIKV disease in a pediatric patient and review of the current literature.

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