Acute Focal Bacterial Nephritis Associated With Central Nervous System Manifestations: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature

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Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) is a localized bacterial infection of the kidney presenting as an inflammatory mass without frank abscess formation. In children, most patients with AFBN present with nonspecific conditions, such as fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. A small number of reported cases are accompanied by neurological symptoms, including meningeal irritation, unconsciousness, and seizures. We experienced 2 rare cases of AFBN associated with central nervous system lesions. The first case was a 3-year-old girl who had neurological symptoms, including unconsciousness and seizures, with AFBN associated with acute reversible encephalopathy. The second case was a 5-year-old girl who had neurological symptoms, including unconsciousness, with AFBN accompanied by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.

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