Food allergies (FAs) occur in 4% to 8% of children in the United States, and emergency department (ED) visits account for up to 20% of their costs. In 2010, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established diagnostic criteria and management practices for FAs, and recognition and treatment of FAs for pediatric ED practitioners has been described.Objective
This study identified trends and factors related to ED visits for pediatric FAs in the United States from 2001 to 2010. It was hypothesized that FAs increased and that differences existed in ED utilization based on age, insurance status, and geography. Low concordance with treatment guidelines for FAs was expected.Methods
Multivariate logistic regression, using National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data, estimated factors associated with ED visits and treatment of FAs and nonspecific allergic reactions. Trends and treatment patters used weighted frequencies to account for the complex 4-stage probability survey design.Results
An estimated 239,303 (95% confidence interval [CI], 180,322–298,284) children visited the ED for FAs, demonstrating a significant rate increase during the period (53.08, P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that the odds of ED visits for FAs were significantly associated with Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program insurance (OR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.01–2.69], P = 0.04), adolescents (OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.10–3.35], P = 0.02), and boys (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.03–2.35], P = 0.04). Treatment with epinephrine for anaphylaxis diagnoses occurred in 57.4% of visits (95% CI, 42.3%–66.8%).Conclusions
Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program–insured pediatric patients had higher odds of visiting ED for recognized FAs and nonspecific allergic reactions and higher odds of receiving epinephrine than privately insured children.