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The aim of the study was to identify factors predicting lung contusion in trauma children.Retrospective study conducted for a period of 8 years (January 01, 2005–December 31, 2012) in a medical surgical intensive care unit. All trauma patients younger than 15 years were included. Two groups were compared: those with lung contusions (C+ group) and those without lung contusions (C− group).We included 330 patients. The mean (SD) age was 7.6 (4.3) years. Chest injury was diagnosed in 70 patients (21.2%). All our patients needed mechanical ventilation. Lung contusions were diagnosed in 43 patients (13% of all patients and 61.4% of patients with chest trauma). In multivariate analysis, independent factors predicting lung contusion were road traffic accident (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–8.6; P = 0.019), increased Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P = 0.017), hepatic contusion (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3–17.1; P = 0.017), and pelvic ring fracture (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1–10.5; P = 0.026). Death occurred in 46 patients (13.9%). Intensive care unit mortality was significantly higher in the C+ group (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.4; P = 0.021). However, mortality was not different between the 2 groups after adjusting for PRISM score (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.5–2.9; P = 0.752) or after adjusting for Injury Severity Score (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3–2.1; P = 0.565).Lung contusion is common in critically ill children with chest trauma. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with road traffic accident, increased PRISM score, hepatic contusion, and pelvic ring fracture.