Nikyo is the second teaching of Aikido (ni-two, kyo-teaching, in Japanese). It is a joint-lock technique that results in extreme pain. It allows one to control an opponent by destroying his will to continue fighting. Nikyo is accomplished by flexing and adducting an opponent's wrist producing an instantaneous sharp pain that causes him to fall to his knees involuntarily to alleviate the pressure. The exact etiology of the pain elicited by this technique has been obscure to many practitioners. The usual explanations have been nerve compression, joint capsular stretch, tendon/muscle strain, or partial ligamentous disruption. Studies of a cadaver's wrist have shown that Nikyo forcibly compresses the pisiform bone against the ulna, two bones that do not normally articulate. The intense pain thereby produced results from stimulation of the periosteal nerves in these bony surfaces.