PERCEPTIONS OF THE MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE CREATED BY PARENTS OF YOUNG PORTUGUESE SWIMMERS1

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of parent-initiated motivational climate in young Portuguese swimmers. 244 participants (130 boys, 114 girls; M age = 13 yr., SD = 2), involved in advanced swimming programs (n = 88) or competition (n = 156), responded to the Portuguese version of the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire. Age did not significantly affect the perceptions the young swimmers had of their parents' initiated motivational climate, but a main effect for sex and an interaction of sex and level of practice interaction were found. Boys in advanced swimming programs perceived a stronger Success-without-effort Climate created by both their father and their mother than did girls at the same level of practice. Boys and girls in both categories had higher perceptions of a Learning/Enjoyment Climate.

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