—The objective was to investigate the effects of high-velocity strength training on isometric strength of the leg extensors and jump height in female and male adolescents. Twenty-eight students (13 boys, 15 girls) ages 16 to 17 years participated in this study and were assigned to either a strength training group or a control group. Strength training was conducted over 8 weeks (2 times per week). Pre- and post-training tests included the measurements of maximal isometric force and rate of force development of the leg extensors as well as countermovement jump height. Both girls (effect size = 1.37) and boys (effect size = 0.61) showed significant improvements in jump height. However, significant increases in maximal isometric force (effect size = 1.85) and rate of force development (effect size = 2.23) were found only in girls. In female and male adolescents, high-velocity strength training is an effective training regimen that produced improvements in counter-movement jump height in both sexes but higher gains in maximal isometric force and rate of force development in girls.