In an attempt to evaluate first urinary tract infection (UTI) in neonates and infants, we estimated retrospectively in 296 patients (62 neonates and 234 infants) clinical and laboratory findings, occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract abnormalities and pyelonephritis. First UTI occurred more often in male than female neonates, whereas male and female infants/young children were affected at an equal rate. The pathogens isolated in urine cultures of neonates and infants did not statistically significantly differ (P>0.05); Escherichia coli predominated. Gram-negative bacteria other than E. coli affected boys more often than girls (P=0.0022). Fever was the most frequent symptom. Neonates had lower-grade fever of shorter duration than infants (P<0.05). The incidence of reflux and urinary tract abnormalities did not differ between neonates and infants, male and female neonates and infants (P>0.05). Pyelonephritis affected neonates and infants at an equal rate; it was more prevalent among female patients (P=0.038) and patients with VUR or urinary tract abnormalities other than VUR (P<0.0001). Neonates with reflux were more often affected by Gram-negative bacteria other than E. coli than were neonates without reflux (P=0.0008).