Tuberous sclerosis complex and renal angiomyolipoma: case report and review of the literature

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A 5-year-old boy with a known diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex was found to have an enlarging renal mass on routine ultrasound. He was diagnosed with an angiomyolipoma (AML) and scheduled for close observation. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the AML to be significantly enlarged and hypervascular. Selective arterial embolization of the tumor was performed, which resulted in an appropriate decrease in tumor size. Angiomyolipoma is a known and well-described complication of the tuberous sclerosis complex that is usually found among patients in their adolescent and adult years. The case presented here illustrates the need for early and repeated renal imaging of younger pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis. Our experience adds to the literature on young pediatric patients requiring embolization for treatment of large renal angiomyolipomas.

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