Urinary tract infections in children after renal transplantation

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Urinary tract infections (UTI) after pediatric kidney transplantation (KTX) are an important clinical problem and occur in 15-33% of patients. Febrile UTI, whether occurring in the transplanted kidney or the native kidney, should be differentiated from afebrile UTI. The latter may cause significant morbidity and is usually associated with acute graft dysfunction. Risk factors for (febrile) UTI include anatomical, functional, and demographic factors as well as baseline immunosuppression and foreign material, such as catheters and stents. Meticulous surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of UTI is important to minimize acute morbidity and compromise of long-term graft function. In febrile UTI, parenteral antibiotics are usually indicated, although controlled data are not available. As most data concerning UTI have been accumulated retrospectively, future prospective studies have to be performed to clarify pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors, improve prophylaxis and treatment, and ultimately optimize long-term renal graft survival.

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