Circadian rhythms of diuresis, proteinuria and natriuresis in children with chronic glomerular disease

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The aim of our study was to examine diurnal variation in urine volume (UV) output, proteinuria (UPRT), urine creatinine (UCr) and urine sodium ion excretion (UNa) in children with chronic glomerulopathy. In 56 patients (20 boys/36 girls, aged 11.7 ± 0.6 years) samples for UPRT, UCr and UNa were collected during the day and night, with continuous ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. On the basis of creatinine clearance (CrCl) the patients were divided into group I (n = 44, with CrCl 131 ± 3.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area), or group II (n = 12, with CrCl 44.6 ± 7.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area). Nocturnal polyuria was defined as night time UV ≥ 35% of the 24 h UV. Age, gender, body mass index of the patients, 24 h UV, UCr and UNa were similar in both groups. However, arterial hypertension and nocturnal polyuria were widespread (P < 0.01) in group II. In addition, proteinuria was higher (P < 0. 05) in group II. The nocturnal decline in CrCl, UV, UPRT and UNa was significantly attenuated (P < 0.005) in patients in group II compared with those in group I. The night time mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as the night/day ratios of MAP, UV, UPRT and UNa, showed negative associations with CrCl. Our findings strongly suggest that renal function diurnal variation and nocturnal MAP are related to decreased glomerular filtration rate at the time of examination.

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