Safe time limits of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass in adult cardiac surgery

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Objectives:We evaluated the impact of aortic cross-clamping time (XCT) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPBT) on the immediate and late outcome after adult cardiac surgery and attempted to identify their safe time limits.Methods:This study includes 3280 patients who underwent adult cardiac surgery of various complexities. Myocardial protection was achieved with tepid continuous antegrade/retrograde blood cardioplegia.Results:Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed that XCT (area under the curve, AUC: 0.66), CPBT (AUC: 0.73) and CPBT with unclamped aorta (AUC: 0.77) were significantly associated with 30-day postoperative mortality. XCT of increasing 30-minute intervals (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.21, 95%C.I. 1.01–1.52) and CPBT of increasing 30-minute intervals (OR 1.47, 95%C.I. 1.27–1.71) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The best cutoff value for XCT was 150 min (30-day death: 1.8% vs. 12.2%, adjusted OR 3.07, 95%C.I. 1.48–6.39, accuracy 91.5%) and for CPBT 240 min (30-day death: 1.9% vs. 31.5%, adjusted OR 8.78, 95%C.I. 4.64–16.61, accuracy 96.0%). These parameters were significantly associated also with postoperative morbidity, particularly with postoperative stroke.Conclusions:XCT and CPBT are predictors of immediate postoperative morbidity and mortality. In our experience, cardiac procedures with CPBT<240 min and XCT<150 min were associated with a rather low risk of immediate postoperative adverse events independently of the complexity of surgery patient's operative risk.

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