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Ultrafiltration, which is currently considered as a standard method to remove excess water administered during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), aims to minimize the adverse effects of hemodilution, such as tissue edema and blood transfusion. Three ultrafiltration techniques can be used before, during and after CPB procedures, including conventional ultrafiltration (CUF), modified ultrafiltration (MUF) and zero-balance ultrafiltration (Z-BUF). These methods are widely different, but they have common benefits on hemoconcentration, less requirement for blood products, and reduction of the systemic inflammatory responses (SIRS). The present review attempts to restate these ultrafiltration circuitries, application methods, end-points, and clinical impacts.