Evaluation of the Maquet Neonatal and Pediatric Quadrox I with an integrated arterial line filter during cardiopulmonary bypass


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Abstract

Background:Perfusion equipment has evolved since its introduction into clinical practice more than fifty years ago to include smaller cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits and components. Perfusionists are now exploring the function of new oxygenators with an integrated arterial line filter (IALF). The purpose of this trial was to examine the Maquet Quadrox-I Neonatal and Pediatric oxygenators with IALF in a clinical setting, with respect to gas transfer, heat exchange co-efficiency (HEC), trans-membrane pressure (TMP) gradient and clinical experience.Methods:The Maquet Quadrox-I Neonatal oxygenator was used on 30 patients ranging from 2.2–13.1 kg. The Maquet Quadrox-I Pediatric oxygenator was used on 15 patients ranging from 12.7–24.5 kg. Arterial and venous blood gases were taken once the patient was stable on CPB and, subsequently, every 30 minutes afterwards, as per institution protocol. The values for gas transfer rates, HEC and TMP gradient were stratified into three main categories with each oxygenator: normothermia, cooling and re-warming.Results:During all conditions, the gas transfer rate with both oxygenators was efficient. The HEC values showed efficient heat exchanger performance during all conditions with both oxygenators. While maintaining CPB flow within the manufacturer's recommended flow rate for each oxygenator, the TMP gradient range for the Neonatal Quadrox-I was 10–40 mmHg and the Pediatric Quadrox-I was 10–60 mmHg. During the clinical trial, foam was shown to break through the cardiotomy on several occasions when high sucker return was required.Conclusion:This new line of oxygenators performed well with regards to gas transfer, HEC and TMP gradient, but there were clinical experiences that did not meet expectations. There were repeated incidences with the venous reservoir which ultimately cast a negative light on the design of this new product from Maquet. In the future, the authors would like to evaluate updated versions of this product from Maquet and any other pediatric perfusion devices that could help the patient in the clinical arena.

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