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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) with moderate hypothermia on hospital mortality after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD). Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2008, 142 consecutive patients were operated on for AAAD. Patients were divided into two subgroups: the cohort of patients operated on from January 1998 until December 2003 (without ASCP) (P1998–2003, n=64) and the cohort operated on from January 2004 until December 2008 (with ASCP)(P2004- 2008, n=78).The difference in hospital mortality was statistically significant (PI998–2003: 42.2%; P2004–2008: 14.1%, p<0.0005). Survival rates were 51.6±6.2% vs. 75.1±5.5% and 45.9±6.2% vs. 69.7±7.3% for one and four years, respectively (p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ASCP was the only independent protective factor of hospital mortality (p=0.047).In patients operated on for AAAD, antegrade selective cerebral perfusion with moderate hypothermia is a significant factor in decreasing hospital mortality.