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Myocardial protection during cardiac surgery can be accomplished by different cardioplegic solutions. The aim of this study was to assess myocardial damage after heart valve surgery performed with myocardial protection of a single dose of Celsior cardioplegia or with repeated cold blood cardioplegia. After the stratification of 139 valvular patients by means of matching according to cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass time, 32 patients were retained for comparison (16 patients received Celsior and 16 patients received cold blood cardioplegia). Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release were evaluated until six days after the operation. Pre-operative characteristics were similar in both groups. In the Celsior group, CK-MB and cTnI values were significantly higher from the first up to the sixth postoperative day. Peak cTnI values were 19.4±13.4 and 9.7±7 ng/mL (p=0.01) in the Celsior and the Cold Blood group, respectively. Peak CK-MB values were 79.6±58.8 and 45.9±20.6 U/L (p=0.07) in the Celsior and the Cold Blood group, respectively. Cold blood cardioplegia reduces perioperative myocardial damage compared to the Celsior solution in elective cardiac valve operations.