Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced modulation of the immune and inflammatory responses is regulated by tissue-specific expression of different receptor subtypes (Y1–Y6) and the activity of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DP4, CD26) which terminates the action of NPY on Y1 receptor subtype. The present study investigated the age-dependent effect of NPY on inflammatory paw edema and macrophage nitric oxide production in Dark Agouti rats exhibiting a high-plasma DP4 activity, as acknowledged earlier. The results showed that NPY suppressed paw edema in adult and aged, but not in young rats. Furthermore, plasma DP4 activity decreased, while macrophage DP4 activity, as well as macrophage CD26 expression increased with aging. The use of NPY-related peptides and Y receptor-specific antagonists revealed that anti-inflammatory effect of NPY is mediated via Y1 and Y5 receptors. NPY-induced suppression of paw edema in young rats following inhibition of DP4 additionally emphasized the role for Y1 receptor in the anti-inflammatory action of NPY. In contrast to the in vivo situation, NPY stimulated macrophage nitric oxide production in vitro only in young rats, and this effect was mediated via Y1 and Y2 receptors. It can be concluded that age-dependant modulation of inflammatory reactions by NPY is determined by plasma, but not macrophage DP4 activity at different ages.