★ Ion transport peptide (ITP) elevates intracellular cyclic AMP in the locust ileum. ★ Tissue levels of cyclic GMP also increase due to ITP stimulation. ★ Factors other than ITP in the corpus cardiacum elevate ileum levels of cyclic AMP. ★ Cyclic GMP stimulates fluid reabsorption across the locust ileum in vitro.
The second messengers involved in the signal transduction for Schistocerca gregaria, ion transport peptide (Schgr-ITP) that regulates ion and fluid transport across the ileum of the desert locust S. gregaria, were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Synthetic Schgr-ITP elevates intracellular levels of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, measured over a 15 min period in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, crude corpora cardiaca (CC) extracts elevate intracellular cyclic AMP levels 2-fold greater than Schgr-ITP, suggesting that factors present in the CC, other than Schgr-ITP, also act via this second messenger. These results suggest that the interaction of Schgr-ITP with two separate receptors, most likely a G-protein coupled receptor and a membrane bound guanylate cyclase, elevates intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP to regulate ion and fluid transport across the locust ileum. Cyclic AMP stimulates Cl−, K+ and Na+ reabsorption, whereas secretion of H+ into the lumen of the ileum is most likely mediated via cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP also stimulates Cl− uptake in a similar manner to cyclic AMP. The measurement of tissue (central nervous system) levels of Schgr-ITP using an indirect ELISA confirms that the peptide is only present in the locust brain and the CC. The amounts present are greatest in the CC, where the peptide is presumably stored for release into the hemolymph when locusts feed.