Excessive inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a critical role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Paralemmin-3 (PALM3) is a novel protein that can modulate LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the progression of ALI in vivo. Therefore, we studied the role of PALM3 in the pathogenesis of ALI induced by LPS. ALI was induced by LPS peritoneal injection in C57BL/6J mice. Lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the mouse PALM3 gene and a negative control siRNA were intranasally administered to the mice. We found that the expression of PALM3 was up-regulated in the lung tissues obtained from the mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. The LPS-evoked inflammatory response (neutrophils and the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines [IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MIP-2] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF]), histologic lung injury (lung injury score), permeability of the alveolar capillary barrier (lung wet/dry weight ratio and BALF protein concentration) and mortality rates were attenuated in the PALM3 siRNA-treated mice. These results indicate that PALM3 contributes to the development of ALI in mice challenged with LPS. Inhibiting PALM3 through the intranasal application of specific siRNA protected against LPS-induced ALI.