Recombinant Lampetra japonica RGD peptide (rLj-RGD3) is a soluble toxin protein with three RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs and a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rLj-RGD3 on tumor growth and survival in pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cell-bearing mice. A Panc-1 human pancreatic carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model was successfully generated, and the animals were treated with different doses of rLj-RGD3 for 3 weeks. The volume and weight of the subcutaneous tumors, the survival of the nude mice, histopathological changes, the intratumoral MVD, the number of apoptotic Panc-1 cells, and apoptosis-related proteins and gene expressions were determined. rLj-RGD3 significantly decreased the tumor volumes and weights, and the maximum tumor volume and weight IR values were 53.2% (p < 0.001) and 55.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The life expectancy of Panc-1-bearing nude mice treated with rLj-RGD3 was increased by 56.3% (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, rLj-RGD3 promoted the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 and inhibited Bcl-2 and VEGF expression. In addition, rLj-RGD3 did not change FAK, PI3K and Akt expression, but p-FAK, p-PI3K and p-Akt, levels were down-regulated. These results show that rLj-RGD3 induced potent anti-tumor activity in vivo and suppressed the growth of transplanted Panc-1 cells in a nude mouse model, implying that rLj-RGD3 may serve as a potent clinical therapeutic agent for human pancreatic carcinoma.