The vast majority of research to date on the gut hormone Peptide YY (PYY) has focused on appetite suppression and body weight regulation effects. These biological actions are believed to occur through interaction of PYY with hypothalamic Y2 receptors. However, more recent studies have added additional knowledge to understanding of the physiological, and potential therapeutic, roles of PYY beyond obesity alone. Thus, PYY has now been shown to impart improvements in pancreatic beta-cell survival and function, with obvious benefits for diabetes. This effect has been linked mainly to binding and activation of Y1 receptors by PYY, but more evidence is still required in this regard. Given the potential therapeutic promise of PYY-derived compounds, and complexity of receptor interactions, it is important to fully understand the complete biological action profile of PYY. Therefore, the current review aims to compile, evaluate and summarise current knowledge on PYY, with particular emphasis on obesity and diabetes treatment, and the importance of specific Y receptor interactions for this.