Gastrointestinal hormones in regulation of memory


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Abstract

HIGHLIGHTSThe connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain is well established.The gut-brain axis regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis and linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions.This review aims to establish the role of various gut hormones in learning and memory.Understanding their role in memory can also aid in finding novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of associated neurological disorders.The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake. These hormones act peripherally and influence the different responses of the tissues to the food intake, but do also have effects on the brain. The hypothalamus, in turn, integrates visceral function with limbic system structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus has been known for its involvement in the cognitive function and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to establish the role of various gut hormones in learning and memory, through the interaction of various receptors in the hippocampus. Understanding their role in memory can also aid in finding novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the neurological disorders associated with memory dysfunctions.

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