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To compare serum resistin concentrations between prepubertal girls with a BMI > 85th percentile and girls with precocious puberty (CPP) who have and have not undergone GnRH analog treatment.This is a cross-sectional study in girls with a BMI > 85th percentile and a median age of 8 years. We included 31 girls with CPP who did not receive treatment (CPPoT), 23 girls with CPP who were treated with leuprolide (CPPT), 22 prepubertal girls and 24 pubertal girls. Anthropometric data and the fasting plasma concentrations of lipids, glucose, insulin, and resistin were measured.The z-BMI scores were similar among the groups (p = 0.344), and body fat percentage (BF%) was similar among CPPT, CPPoT and prepubertal girls (p = 0.151). Resistin and insulin levels were lower in girls with CPP (CPPT and CPPoT) than in prepubertal and pubertal girls (median resistin level: CPPT 11.8 pg/ml vs CPPoT 11 pg/ml vs prepubertal 16 pg/ml vs pubertal 16 pg/ml, p = 0.001; median insulin level: CPPT 10.7 μUI/mL vs CPPoT 10.2 μUI/mL vs prepubertal 14.4 μUI/mL vs pubertal 32 μUI/mL p = 0.02). ANCOVA analysis, after adjustments for pubertal stage, BF% and z-BMI, showed that CPP modifies resistin levels (F = 31.4; p = 0.0001) independently of these parameters (p < 0.05).In the group of girls with overweight or obesity, the resistin level was lower in girls with CPP than in prepubertal and pubertal girls. More studies are needed to understand the role of resistin in CPP patients.This study is the first to determine resistin levels in patients with CPP.CPP patients have lower concentrations of resistin than prepubertal and pubertal girls with overweight or obesity without CPP.Resistin levels were not found to be related to z-BMI, body fat percentage or CPP treatment status.