Nesfatin-1 is an 82-amino acid protein derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), which could inhibit food intake in fish and mammals. However, the neuroendocrine mechanism of nesfatin-1 in animal appetite regulation is unclear. To explore the feeding mechanism of nesfatin-1 in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), intraperitoneal injections of nesfatin-1 and sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8), Lorglumide (CCK1R selective antagonist), or LY 225,910 (CCK2R selective antagonist) were performed. Co-injection of nesfatin-1 and CCK8 synergistically significantly decreased the food intake in 1 h. Lorglumide reversed the anorectic effect of nesfatin-1, but LY 225,910 had no effect. Moreover, Lorglumide could also reverse the expressions of appetite factors including nucb2, cck, unc3, cart, apelin, pyy, and npy induced by nesfatin-1 in the brain, stomach, and liver, while LY 225,910 partially reversed these changes. These results indicate that nesfatin-1 inhibits the appetite of Siberian sturgeon mainly through the CCK−CCK1R signaling pathway.