Vaccinations are recommended for achieving protection against vaccine-preventable infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. In order to evaluate the protection at the time of renal transplantation, the antibody titers against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B, diphtheria, and tetanus were determined in 35 children one month prior to transplantation. Only 26% of patients on dialysis listed for transplantation showed protective antibodies against all tested pathogens. Particularly, low protection was found for hepatitis B. Children younger than four yr showed significantly lower protective antibody titers compared with older children for almost all vaccines. Children who completed vaccination in the last six months to six yr prior to renal transplantation showed higher rates of protective antibody titers against all pathogens compared with children who had vaccination more than six yr before transplantation. Preventive strategies in children with chronic renal failure include repeated measurements of serum antibodies and appropriate revaccination if titers decline. Our results underline the demand for continuous surveillance of specific antibody titers against vaccine-preventable diseases in the risk group of renal transplant recipients.